Feb 252019

Renal/Nephrology is the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease. Medicos Library has provided high standard Renal/Nephrology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Renal blood flow (RBF)

  • Renal blood flow is 20-25% of cardiac output
  • The ‘Fick principle’ can be used to estimate RBF through clearance.
  • Sympathetic stimuli produce vasoconstriction and RBF should be increased in response to hypoxia.
  • Renal cortical blood flow > medullary blood flow (i.e. tubular cells more prone to ischaemia)


  • Released by JGA cells in kidney in response to ↓ renal perfusion, low sodium
  • Hydrolyses angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I

Factors stimulating renin secretion

  • ↓ BP → ↓ renal prefusion
  • Hyponatremia
  • Sympathetic nerve stimulation
  • Catecholamines
  • Erect posture

Factors reducing renin secretion

  • β-blockers


  • ACE in lung converts angiotensin I → angiotensin II
  • Vasoconstriction leads to raised BP
  • Stimulates thirst
  • Stimulates aldosterone and ADH release


  • Released by the zona glomerulosa in response to raised angiotensin II, potassium, and ACTH levels
  • Causes retention of Na+ in exchange for K+/H+ in distal tubule

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.

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