Feb 252019

Ophthalmology is the study of that deals with the eye disease and pathogenesis and the management of such diseases. Medicos Library has provided high standard Ophthalmology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Factors predisposing to AACG include:
 hypermetropia (long-sightedness)
 pupillary dilatation
 lens growth associated with age

 severe pain: may be ocular or headache
 decreased visual acuity
 symptoms worse with mydriasis (e.g. watching TV in a dark room)
 hard, red eye
 haloes around lights  semi-dilated non-reacting pupil.The oval shape is due to the iris sphincter ischaemia from the high intraocular pressure.
 corneal oedema results in dull or hazy cornea
 systemic upset may be seen, such as nausea and vomiting and even abdominal pain

 urgent referral to an ophthalmologist
 management options include reducing aqueous secretions with acetazolamide and inducing pupillary constriction with topical pilocarpine Treatment of acute glaucoma – acetazolamide + pilocarpine

Primary open-angle glaucoma
Glaucoma is a group disorders characterised by optic neuropathy due, in the majority of patients, to raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is now recognised that a minority of patients with raised IOP do not have glaucoma and vice versa Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is the most common type of glaucoma.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, also referred to as chronic simple glaucoma) is present in around 2% of people older than 40 years. Other than age, risk factors include:
 family history
 black patients
 myopia
 hypertension
 diabetes mellitus

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.

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