Feb 252019

Basic Science Immunology is the study of immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. Medicos Library has provided high standard Basic Science Immunology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

HLA associations

  • HLA antigens are encoded for by genes on short arm of chromosome 6.
  • HLA A, B and C are class I antigens whilst DP, DQ, DR are class II antigens.
  • Class-I molecules (subtypes A, B and C) are expressed on all cell types except erythrocytes and trophoblasts 
  • They interact with CD8-positive T-cells and are involved in driving cytotoxic reactions
  • Class II matching is particularly important when it comes to transplant matching,
  • Studies in renal transplantation indicate that mismatches at the A, B, and DR loci are associated with worse allograft survival.
  • Anti-HLA antibodies are typically not naturally occurring, only occur post transplantation
  • MHC class II is only expressed on immune cells. MHC I is expressed on any cell type.
  • Questions are often based around which diseases have strong HLA associations.

Clusters of differentiation
Function and usage of CDs:

  •  Commonly used as cell markers in immuno-phenotyping, allowing cells to be defined based on what molecules are present on their surface.
  • often acting as receptors or ligands (the molecule that activates a receptor)
  • cell signaling: Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and DM
  • Cell adhesion: essential for the pathogenesis of infectious organisms. Eg: Plasmodium falciparum uses adhesion molecules to bind to liver cells and RBCs. Cancer metastases by mechanisms of cell adhesion. Adhesion of bacteria is the first step in colonization and regulates tropism (tissue- or cell-specific interactions).

*viruses also have adhesion molecules required for viral binding to host cells. For example, influenza virus has a hemagglutinnin on its surface that is required for recognition of the sugar sialic acid on host cell surface molecules. HIV has an adhesion molecule termed gp120 that binds to its ligand CD4, which is expressed on lymphocyte.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.

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