Feb 252019
 

asic Science Biostatistics is the study of mathematical discipline of statistics to the field of health sciences, specifically biology and epidemiology. Medicos Library has provided high standard Basic Science Biostatistics Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Significance tests
A null hypothesis (H0) states that two treatments are equally effective (and is hence negatively phrased). A significance test uses the sample data to assess how likely the null hypothesis is to be correct. The null hypothesis is always that there is no difference between the variables we would like to test for a difference.
For example:

  • ‘there is no difference in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in patients taking low-dose aspirin compared to those who are not’
  • The alternative hypothesis (H1) is the opposite of the null hypothesis, i.e. There is a difference between the two treatments The p value is the probability of obtaining a result by chance at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. It is therefore equal to the chance of making a type
  • I error (see below). the p-value is the probability of obtaining the observed results or results which are more extreme if the null hypothesis is true
  • In case of the p value is below 0.05 and we accept the alternative hypothesis in favour of the null hypothesis Two types of errors may occur when testing the null hypothesis

Type I: the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true – i.e. Showing a difference between two groups when it doesn’t exist, a false positive. This is determined against a preset significance level (termed alpha). As the significance level is determined in advance the chance of making a type I error is not affected by sample size. It is however increased if the number of end-points are increased. For example if a study has 20 end-points it is likely one of these will be reached, just by chance.

Type II: the null hypothesis is accepted when it is false – i.e. Failing to spot a difference when one really exists, a false negative. The probability of making a type II error is termed beta. It is determined by both sample size and alpha.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Basic Science Immunology is the study of immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. Medicos Library has provided high standard Basic Science Immunology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

HLA associations

  • HLA antigens are encoded for by genes on short arm of chromosome 6.
  • HLA A, B and C are class I antigens whilst DP, DQ, DR are class II antigens.
  • Class-I molecules (subtypes A, B and C) are expressed on all cell types except erythrocytes and trophoblasts 
  • They interact with CD8-positive T-cells and are involved in driving cytotoxic reactions
  • Class II matching is particularly important when it comes to transplant matching,
  • Studies in renal transplantation indicate that mismatches at the A, B, and DR loci are associated with worse allograft survival.
  • Anti-HLA antibodies are typically not naturally occurring, only occur post transplantation
  • MHC class II is only expressed on immune cells. MHC I is expressed on any cell type.
  • Questions are often based around which diseases have strong HLA associations.

Clusters of differentiation
Function and usage of CDs:

  •  Commonly used as cell markers in immuno-phenotyping, allowing cells to be defined based on what molecules are present on their surface.
  • often acting as receptors or ligands (the molecule that activates a receptor)
  • cell signaling: Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and DM
  • Cell adhesion: essential for the pathogenesis of infectious organisms. Eg: Plasmodium falciparum uses adhesion molecules to bind to liver cells and RBCs. Cancer metastases by mechanisms of cell adhesion. Adhesion of bacteria is the first step in colonization and regulates tropism (tissue- or cell-specific interactions).

*viruses also have adhesion molecules required for viral binding to host cells. For example, influenza virus has a hemagglutinnin on its surface that is required for recognition of the sugar sialic acid on host cell surface molecules. HIV has an adhesion molecule termed gp120 that binds to its ligand CD4, which is expressed on lymphocyte.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms. Biochemists focus heavily on the role, function, and structure of biomolecules and Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. Medicos Library has provided high standard Basic Science Biochemistry Metabolism Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Anion gap
The anion gap is calculated by: (sodium + potassium) – (bicarbonate + chloride) A normal anion gap is 8-14 mmol/L It is useful to consider in patients with a metabolic acidosis: Causes of a normal anion gap or hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis

  • gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss: diarrhoea, ureterosigmoidostomy, fistula
  • renal tubular acidosis
  •  drugs: e.g. acetazolamide
  •  ammonium chloride injection
  •  Addison’s disease

Causes of a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis

  • lactate: shock, hypoxia
  • ketones: diabetic ketoacidosis, alcohol
  •  urate: renal failure
  •  acid poisoning: salicylates, methanol

Metabolic alkalosis
Metabolic alkalosis may be caused by a loss of hydrogen ions or a gain of bicarbonate. It is due mainly to problems of the kidney or gastrointestinal tract Causes

  • vomiting / aspiration (e.g. peptic ulcer leading to pyloric stenos, nasogastric suction)
  •  diuretics
  •  liquorice, carbenoxolone
  •  hypokalaemia
  •  primary hyperaldosteronism
  • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Bartter’s syndrome
  • congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Mechanism of metabolic alkalosis

  • activation of renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone (RAA) system is a key factor

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Cardiology is the study of the heart and blood vessel. Its treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Medicos Library has provided high standard cardiology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Anatomy of the heart

  • The right ventricle lies anterior to the left ventricle
  • The tricuspid valve is the most anterior valve of the heart and is the most common to be
    injured during a stabbing attack
  • The left atrium is the most posterior chamber of the heart, the right atrium is just anterior and to
    the right of the left atrium.
  • The left atrial appendage is not readily seen on transthoracic echocardiography and requires
    transoesophageal echocardiography.
  • The aortic valve is tricuspid
    Arterial anatomy
  • The internal thoracic artery arises from the subclavian artery.
  • The inferior and superior ulnar collateral arteries and the profunda brachii are branches of the
    brachial artery.
  • The subscapular artery arises from the axillary and is its largest branch, eventually
    anastomosing with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries.

Anatomical relations

  • The descending aorta lies behind (posterior to) the left main bronchus.
  • The ascending aorta is anterior to the pulmonary trunk.
  • The left pulmonary artery is anterior to the left main bronchus.
  • The right main bronchus should be beside the left following bifurcation of the trachea.
  • The superior vena cava can be found next to the ascending aorta.
  • The oesophagus is also a posterior structure to the left main bronchus.
    Coronary arteries
  • Basic understanding of coronary anatomy is important as this is predictive of problems
    following MI.For example:
    - the right coronary artery supplies the AV node, so heart block following inferior MI is
    common. However, heart block following anterior MI is a grave prognostic marker
    as this indicates a large anterior wall infarct.
    - The right coronary system also supplies the right ventricle, hence problems relating to a
    right ventricular infarct are commonly associated with an inferior MI.
    - right coronary artery supplies the inferior myocardium and occlusion causes ST
    elevation in II, III and aVF.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Dermatology is the study of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the skin, hair, nails, oral cavity and genitals. Medicos Library has provided high standard Dermatology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Epidermis

  • The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is composed of a stratified squamous
    epithelium with an underlying basal lamina

Acne rosacea is a chronic skin disease of unknown aetiology
Features

  • typically affects nose, cheeks and forehead
  • flushing is often first symptom
  • telangiectasia are common
  • later develops into persistent erythema with papules and pustules
  • rhinophyma
  • ocular involvement: blepharitis

Management

  • topical metronidazole may be used for mild symptoms (i.e. Limited number of papules and
    pustules, no plaques)
  • more severe disease is treated with systemic antibiotics e.g. Oxytetracycline
  • recommend daily application of a high-factor sunscreen
  • camouflage creams may help conceal redness
  • laser therapy may be appropriate for patients with prominent telangiectasia

Acne vulgaris
 Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder which usually occurs in adolescence.
 It typically affects the face, neck and upper trunk
 characterised by the obstruction of the pilosebaceous follicle with keratin plugs which results in
comedones, inflammation and pustules.

Epidemiology
 affects around 80-90% of teenagers, 60% of whom seek medical advice
 acne may also persist beyond adolescence, with 10-15% of females and 5% of males over 25
years old being affected
Pathophysiology is multifactorial
 follicular epidermal hyperproliferation resulting in the formation of a keratin plug. This in turn
causes obstruction of the pilosebaceous follicle. Activity of sebaceous glands may be
controlled by androgen, although levels are often normal in patients with acne
 colonisation by the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes
 inflammation

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system in the human body. This is a system of glands which secrete hormones. Hormones are chemicals which affect the actions of different organ systems in the body. Examples include thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and insulin. Medicos Library has provided high standard Endocrinology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Dynamic pituitary function tests
A dynamic pituitary function test is used to assess patients with suspected primary pituitary dysfunction Insulin, TRH and LHRH are given to the patient following which the serum glucose, cortisol, growth hormone, TSH, LH and FSH levels are recorded at regular intervals. Prolactin levels are also sometimes measured* A normal dynamic pituitary function test has the following characteristics:

  • GH level rises > 20mu/l
  • cortisol level rises > 550 mmol/l
  • TSH level rises by > 2 mu/l from baseline level
  • LH and FSH should double

*dopamine antagonist tests using metoclopramide may also be used in the investigation of hyperprolactinaemia. A normal response is at least a twofold rise in prolactin. A blunted prolactin response suggests a prolactinoma

Hypopituitarism
Adult growth hormone deficiency
 low peak growth hormone levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia
Features – mix  low ACTH: tiredness, postural hypotension. (Postural hypotension is related to adrenal failure regardless of cause)
 low gonadotrophins: amenorrhoea
 low TSH: constipated

Antidiuretic hormone

  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted from the posterior pituitary gland.
  • It promotes water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidneys by the insertion of aquaporin-2 channels
  • ADH binds to V2 receptors which are found on the peritubular surface of cells in the distal convoluted tubule and medullary collecting duct. This leads to insertion of aquaporin channels into the luminal membrane, enhancing permeability to water.
  • ADH (vasopressin) is known to increase platelet aggregation, as such it may be considered prothrombotic at high dose.
  • increase factor VIII production, and as such may be of utility in treating some patients with haemophilia A. 
  • It leads to uterine and GI smooth muscle contraction and indirectly leads to a reduction in coronary artery blood flow.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. Medicos Library has provided high standard Gastroenterology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Blood supply Bleeding from Posterior duodenal ulcers are due to erosion of the gastroduodenal artery 

  • The right and left gastroepiploic arteries (gastro-omental arteries) supply the greater curvature of the stomach.
  • The source of ulcer bleeding in the greater curvature of the stomach
  • Left gastroepiploic artery
  • The right gastric artery arises from the hepatic artery or the left hepatic artery, supplies the pylorus and travels along the lesser curvature of the stomach, supplying it, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery.
  • The cause of ulcer bleeding in the lesser curvature of the stomach
  • right gastric artery
  • The pancreaticoduodenal artery (a branch of the gastroduodenal artery) supplies mainly the upper and lower duodenum and the head of the pancreas.
  • The right hepatic artery supplies the right lobe of the liver and part of the caudate lobe.

Acid secretion
Principle mediators of acid secretion
 gastrin
 vagal stimulation
 histamine
Factors increasing acid secretion
 gastrinoma
 small bowel resection (removal of inhibition)
 systemic mastocytosis (elevated histamine levels)
 basophilia
Factors decreasing acid secretion
 drugs: H2-antagonists, PPIs
 hormones: secretin, VIP, GIP, CCK  Prostaglandins.

Intrinsic factor

  • Intrinsic factor is a glucoprotein secreted from the parietal cells of the stomach in response to gastrin, food or histamine.
  • intrinsic factor transport vitamin B12 across the mucosal wall.
  • When the vitamin B12 bound to intrinsic factor reaches the terminal ileum, it binds to receptors on the surface of the mucosal cells and is able to cross the membrane and enter the cytoplasm.
  • The intrinsic factor is then replaced by transcobalamin II which transports the B12 out of the cell and into the bloodstream.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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data-ad-slot=”2051716998″>


Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Haematology is the study of cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. It includes problems with the red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, blood vessels, bone marrow. Medicos Library has provided high standard Haematology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Alpha-thalassaemia

  • Alpha-thalassaemia is due to a deficiency of alpha chains in haemoglobin
    Overview
  • 2 separate alpha-globulin genes are located on each chromosome 16
  • Clinical severity depends on the number of alpha chains present
  • If 1 or 2 alpha chains are absent then the blood picture would be hypochromic and
    microcytic, but the Hb level would be typically normal
  • Loss of 3 alpha chains results in a hypochromic microcytic anaemia with splenomegaly
    and HbH in red cells. This is known as Hb H disease
  •  If all 4 alpha chains absent (i.e. homozygote) then death in utero (hydrops fetalis, Bart’s
    hydrops)
  • Persistence of HbF has survival advantages in severely affected subjects.

Antiphospholipid syndrome

  • Antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired disorder characterised by a predisposition to both
    venous and arterial thromboses, recurrent fetal loss and thrombocytopenia.
  • It may occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other conditions, most commonly systemic
    lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • A key point for the exam is to appreciate that antiphospholipid syndrome causes a paradoxical
    rise in the APTT. This is due to an ex-vivo reaction of the lupus anticoagulant autoantibodies
    with phospholipids involved in the coagulation cascade

Features
 venous/arterial thrombosis
 recurrent fetal loss
 livedo reticularis
 thrombocytopenia
 prolonged APTT
 other features: pre-eclampsia, pulmonary hypertension
Associations other than SLE
 other autoimmune disorders

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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data-ad-layout=”in-article”
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Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Infectious disease is the study of a disease or disease-causing organism liable to be transmitted to people, organisms, etc. through the environment. Medicos Library has provided high standard Infectious disease Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Identifying gram-positive bacteria
Gram positive bacteria will turn purple/blue following the gram staining. Microscopy will then reveal the
shape, either cocci or rods.

Rods (bacilli)
 Actinomyces
 Bacillus antracis
 Clostridium
 Corynebacterium diphtheriae
 Listeria monocytogenes

Cocci
 makes catalase: Staphylococci
 does not make catalase: Streptococci

Staphylococci
 makes coagulase: S. aureus
 does not make coagulase: S. epidermidis (novobiocin sensitive), S. saprophyticus (novobiocin
resistant)

Streptococci
 partial haemolysis (green colour on blood agar): α-haemolytic
 optochin sensitive: S. pneumoniae
 optochin resistant: Viridans streptococci
 complete haemolysis (clear): -haemolytic
 bacitracin sensitive: Group A: S. pyogenes
 bacitracin resistant: Group B: S. agalactiae
 no haemolysis: γ-haemolytic

Staphylococci
 Staphylococci are a common type of bacteria which are often found normal commensal
organisms but may also cause invasive disease.
 Staphylococci are skin organisms most commonly introduced during pacemaker insertion
and such a discitis would present with back pain.

Basic facts :
 Gram-positive cocci
 facultative anaerobes
 produce catalase

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. The nervous system is a complex, sophisticated system that regulates and coordinates body activities. It has two major divisions: Central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord. Medicos Library has provided high standard Neurology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Anatomy of hindbrain

  • The hindbrain comprises: – The myelencephalon (medulla oblongata and lower part of the fourth ventricle) – The metencephalon (pons, cerebellum and intermediate part of fourth ventricle), and – Isthmus rhombencephalon.
  • The medulla oblongata opens into the fourth ventricle.
  • The nucleus ambiguous gives rise to fibres of the accessory, vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves.
  • The locus caeruleus receives sensory fibres from the trigeminal nerve.
  • The three parts of the cerebellum include the vermis and the two hemispheres which are confluent.
  • The pyramids (spinothalamic tracts) are medial to the olives.
  • The median portion of the cerebellum is the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres lie lateral to it.

Gross anatomy

  • Difficulties with task sequencing and executive skills
  • Expressive (Broca’s) aphasia: located on the posterior aspect of the frontal lobe, in the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech is non-fluent, laboured, and halting
  • disinhibition
  • perseveration
  • anosmia
  • primitive reflexes (positive grasp, pout and palmomental reflexes)
  • inability to generate a list
  • Changes in personality.

A unilateral parietal lobe lesion, left or right, causes:

  • contralateral hemihypesthesia
  • mild hemiparesis
  • parietal ataxia
  • homonymous hemianiopia
  • inferior quadrantanopia, and unilateral impairment of optokinetic nystagmus.

A left (usually dominant) parietal lesion causes the above signs in addition to sensory aphasia, Gerstmann syndrome (dysgraphia, dyscalculia, finger agnosia, left-right disorientation), bilateral apraxia and tactile agnosia.

A right (usually non-dominant) parietal lesion also causes left extinction phenomenon, left visual neglect, neglect of the left side of the body, anosognosia, impaired spatial processing and dressing apraxia.

Biparietal lesions result in markedly impaired orientation and spatial processing and ataxia.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine