Feb 252019
 

Cardiology is the study of the heart and blood vessel. Its treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Medicos Library has provided high standard cardiology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Anatomy of the heart

  • The right ventricle lies anterior to the left ventricle
  • The tricuspid valve is the most anterior valve of the heart and is the most common to be
    injured during a stabbing attack
  • The left atrium is the most posterior chamber of the heart, the right atrium is just anterior and to
    the right of the left atrium.
  • The left atrial appendage is not readily seen on transthoracic echocardiography and requires
    transoesophageal echocardiography.
  • The aortic valve is tricuspid
    Arterial anatomy
  • The internal thoracic artery arises from the subclavian artery.
  • The inferior and superior ulnar collateral arteries and the profunda brachii are branches of the
    brachial artery.
  • The subscapular artery arises from the axillary and is its largest branch, eventually
    anastomosing with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries.

Anatomical relations

  • The descending aorta lies behind (posterior to) the left main bronchus.
  • The ascending aorta is anterior to the pulmonary trunk.
  • The left pulmonary artery is anterior to the left main bronchus.
  • The right main bronchus should be beside the left following bifurcation of the trachea.
  • The superior vena cava can be found next to the ascending aorta.
  • The oesophagus is also a posterior structure to the left main bronchus.
    Coronary arteries
  • Basic understanding of coronary anatomy is important as this is predictive of problems
    following MI.For example:
    - the right coronary artery supplies the AV node, so heart block following inferior MI is
    common. However, heart block following anterior MI is a grave prognostic marker
    as this indicates a large anterior wall infarct.
    - The right coronary system also supplies the right ventricle, hence problems relating to a
    right ventricular infarct are commonly associated with an inferior MI.
    - right coronary artery supplies the inferior myocardium and occlusion causes ST
    elevation in II, III and aVF.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Jan 222019
 

Cardiology is a essential part of MRCP exam carrying 15 marks in the exam. Most student usual attain low marks in this section. Cardiology is the study of the heart and blood vessel. Its treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Medicos Library has provided high standard cardiology on examination revision materials for medical exams.

  • Anatomy and physiology
    - Basic anatomy and physiology of the heart in health and disease including:
    Clinical relevant normal anatomy of the heart, coronary arteries and great vessels
     Determinants of the heart rate and rhythm 
     Cardiac conduction 
     Cardiac output
    Vascular tone
     Blood pressure
     Coronary blood flow
     Genesis of heart sound
  • Pathophysiology and pathology
    - Mechanism underlying the main pathological processes
    Ex:
    Thrombosis
     Infarction 
     Atherogenesis
     Hypertrophy
    Heart failure
     Cardiomyopathies
     Dysrhythmias
     Hypertension
  • Cell biology
    - Topics of proven clinical relevance such as:
    Excitation-contraction process
     Molecular and cellular aspects of hypertrophy of the myocardium of vascular smooth muscle
  • Clinical pharmacology
    - Indications of drug therapy in cardiac disease
    - Actions, interactions, and side effects of the drugs used, with emphasis on new drugs and newly observed side effects.
  • Clinical cardiology
    - Clinical features and management of the cardiac disorders encountered in hospital practice by the general physician
    - Risk factors
    Ex:
    Clinical features of constrictive pericarditis, cardiac tamponade, endocarditis, valvular disease 
     Management of acute coronary syndromes
     Management of cardiac failure
    Management issues in atrial fibrillation
     Indications for, and types of, permanent pacemaker
    - Important changes in clinical practice, following the publication of major clinical trials
    Ex:
     Use of ACE inhibitors after myocardial infarction 
     Use of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in primary and secondary prevention of coronary morbidity and mortality
     Use of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs in left ventricular dysfunction
    - Indications for invasive and non-invasive cardiac investigation
    - Principle of these investigative methods, their limitations and the clinical relevance
    Ex:
     Common ECG abnormalities
    Basic echocardiographic abnormalities such as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy or pericardial effusion
     Indication for coronary angiography

MRCP(UK) develops and delivers postgraduate medical examinations around the world on behalf of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK.

Part 1 at a glance

  • one-day examination
  • two three-hour papers
  • 200 mutiple-choice (best of five) questions
  • no images
  • sat in an examination hall.

Exam pass marks

MRCP(UK) examinations

Examination Pass mark
Part 1 540
Part 2 Written 454
PACES 130 (see individual skills breakdown below)

The composition of the papers is as follows:

Specialty Number of questions*
Cardiology 15
Clinical haematology and oncology 15
Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology 16
Emergency and Critical care
Clinical sciences** 25
Dermatology 8
Endocrinology 15
Geriatric medicine 4
Gastroenterology 15
Infectious diseases and GUM 15
Neurology 15
Nephrology 15
Ophthalmology 4
Psychiatry 8
Respiratory medicine 15
Rheumatology 15
200

* This should be taken as an indication of the likely number of questions – the actual number may vary slightly.

** Clinical sciences comprise:

Cell, molecular and membrane biology 2
Clinical anatomy 3
Clinical biochemistry and metabolism 4
Clinical physiology 4
Genetics 3
Immunology 4
Statistics, epidemiology and evidence-based medicine 5

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