Feb 252019
 

asic Science Biostatistics is the study of mathematical discipline of statistics to the field of health sciences, specifically biology and epidemiology. Medicos Library has provided high standard Basic Science Biostatistics Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Significance tests
A null hypothesis (H0) states that two treatments are equally effective (and is hence negatively phrased). A significance test uses the sample data to assess how likely the null hypothesis is to be correct. The null hypothesis is always that there is no difference between the variables we would like to test for a difference.
For example:

  • ‘there is no difference in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in patients taking low-dose aspirin compared to those who are not’
  • The alternative hypothesis (H1) is the opposite of the null hypothesis, i.e. There is a difference between the two treatments The p value is the probability of obtaining a result by chance at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. It is therefore equal to the chance of making a type
  • I error (see below). the p-value is the probability of obtaining the observed results or results which are more extreme if the null hypothesis is true
  • In case of the p value is below 0.05 and we accept the alternative hypothesis in favour of the null hypothesis Two types of errors may occur when testing the null hypothesis

Type I: the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true – i.e. Showing a difference between two groups when it doesn’t exist, a false positive. This is determined against a preset significance level (termed alpha). As the significance level is determined in advance the chance of making a type I error is not affected by sample size. It is however increased if the number of end-points are increased. For example if a study has 20 end-points it is likely one of these will be reached, just by chance.

Type II: the null hypothesis is accepted when it is false – i.e. Failing to spot a difference when one really exists, a false negative. The probability of making a type II error is termed beta. It is determined by both sample size and alpha.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Basic Science Immunology is the study of immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. Medicos Library has provided high standard Basic Science Immunology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

HLA associations

  • HLA antigens are encoded for by genes on short arm of chromosome 6.
  • HLA A, B and C are class I antigens whilst DP, DQ, DR are class II antigens.
  • Class-I molecules (subtypes A, B and C) are expressed on all cell types except erythrocytes and trophoblasts 
  • They interact with CD8-positive T-cells and are involved in driving cytotoxic reactions
  • Class II matching is particularly important when it comes to transplant matching,
  • Studies in renal transplantation indicate that mismatches at the A, B, and DR loci are associated with worse allograft survival.
  • Anti-HLA antibodies are typically not naturally occurring, only occur post transplantation
  • MHC class II is only expressed on immune cells. MHC I is expressed on any cell type.
  • Questions are often based around which diseases have strong HLA associations.

Clusters of differentiation
Function and usage of CDs:

  •  Commonly used as cell markers in immuno-phenotyping, allowing cells to be defined based on what molecules are present on their surface.
  • often acting as receptors or ligands (the molecule that activates a receptor)
  • cell signaling: Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and DM
  • Cell adhesion: essential for the pathogenesis of infectious organisms. Eg: Plasmodium falciparum uses adhesion molecules to bind to liver cells and RBCs. Cancer metastases by mechanisms of cell adhesion. Adhesion of bacteria is the first step in colonization and regulates tropism (tissue- or cell-specific interactions).

*viruses also have adhesion molecules required for viral binding to host cells. For example, influenza virus has a hemagglutinnin on its surface that is required for recognition of the sugar sialic acid on host cell surface molecules. HIV has an adhesion molecule termed gp120 that binds to its ligand CD4, which is expressed on lymphocyte.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms. Biochemists focus heavily on the role, function, and structure of biomolecules and Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. Medicos Library has provided high standard Basic Science Biochemistry Metabolism Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Anion gap
The anion gap is calculated by: (sodium + potassium) – (bicarbonate + chloride) A normal anion gap is 8-14 mmol/L It is useful to consider in patients with a metabolic acidosis: Causes of a normal anion gap or hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis

  • gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss: diarrhoea, ureterosigmoidostomy, fistula
  • renal tubular acidosis
  •  drugs: e.g. acetazolamide
  •  ammonium chloride injection
  •  Addison’s disease

Causes of a raised anion gap metabolic acidosis

  • lactate: shock, hypoxia
  • ketones: diabetic ketoacidosis, alcohol
  •  urate: renal failure
  •  acid poisoning: salicylates, methanol

Metabolic alkalosis
Metabolic alkalosis may be caused by a loss of hydrogen ions or a gain of bicarbonate. It is due mainly to problems of the kidney or gastrointestinal tract Causes

  • vomiting / aspiration (e.g. peptic ulcer leading to pyloric stenos, nasogastric suction)
  •  diuretics
  •  liquorice, carbenoxolone
  •  hypokalaemia
  •  primary hyperaldosteronism
  • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Bartter’s syndrome
  • congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Mechanism of metabolic alkalosis

  • activation of renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone (RAA) system is a key factor

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


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data-ad-format=”fluid”
data-ad-client=”ca-pub-4925461891319576″
data-ad-slot=”2051716998″>


Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine