Feb 252019

Cardiology is the study of the heart and blood vessel. Its treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Medicos Library has provided high standard cardiology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Anatomy of the heart

  • The right ventricle lies anterior to the left ventricle
  • The tricuspid valve is the most anterior valve of the heart and is the most common to be
    injured during a stabbing attack
  • The left atrium is the most posterior chamber of the heart, the right atrium is just anterior and to
    the right of the left atrium.
  • The left atrial appendage is not readily seen on transthoracic echocardiography and requires
    transoesophageal echocardiography.
  • The aortic valve is tricuspid
    Arterial anatomy
  • The internal thoracic artery arises from the subclavian artery.
  • The inferior and superior ulnar collateral arteries and the profunda brachii are branches of the
    brachial artery.
  • The subscapular artery arises from the axillary and is its largest branch, eventually
    anastomosing with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries.

Anatomical relations

  • The descending aorta lies behind (posterior to) the left main bronchus.
  • The ascending aorta is anterior to the pulmonary trunk.
  • The left pulmonary artery is anterior to the left main bronchus.
  • The right main bronchus should be beside the left following bifurcation of the trachea.
  • The superior vena cava can be found next to the ascending aorta.
  • The oesophagus is also a posterior structure to the left main bronchus.
    Coronary arteries
  • Basic understanding of coronary anatomy is important as this is predictive of problems
    following MI.For example:
    - the right coronary artery supplies the AV node, so heart block following inferior MI is
    common. However, heart block following anterior MI is a grave prognostic marker
    as this indicates a large anterior wall infarct.
    - The right coronary system also supplies the right ventricle, hence problems relating to a
    right ventricular infarct are commonly associated with an inferior MI.
    - right coronary artery supplies the inferior myocardium and occlusion causes ST
    elevation in II, III and aVF.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.

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