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Feb 252019
 

Ophthalmology is the study of that deals with the eye disease and pathogenesis and the management of such diseases. Medicos Library has provided high standard Ophthalmology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Factors predisposing to AACG include:
 hypermetropia (long-sightedness)
 pupillary dilatation
 lens growth associated with age

Features
 severe pain: may be ocular or headache
 decreased visual acuity
 symptoms worse with mydriasis (e.g. watching TV in a dark room)
 hard, red eye
 haloes around lights  semi-dilated non-reacting pupil.The oval shape is due to the iris sphincter ischaemia from the high intraocular pressure.
 corneal oedema results in dull or hazy cornea
 systemic upset may be seen, such as nausea and vomiting and even abdominal pain

Management
 urgent referral to an ophthalmologist
 management options include reducing aqueous secretions with acetazolamide and inducing pupillary constriction with topical pilocarpine Treatment of acute glaucoma – acetazolamide + pilocarpine

Primary open-angle glaucoma
Glaucoma is a group disorders characterised by optic neuropathy due, in the majority of patients, to raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is now recognised that a minority of patients with raised IOP do not have glaucoma and vice versa Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is the most common type of glaucoma.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, also referred to as chronic simple glaucoma) is present in around 2% of people older than 40 years. Other than age, risk factors include:
 family history
 black patients
 myopia
 hypertension
 diabetes mellitus

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Toxicology and Drugs is the study of the nature, effects, and detection of poisons. Medicos Library has provided high standard Toxicology and Drugs Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Pharmacokinetics: metabolism

  • phase I reactions: oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis. Mainly performed by the P450 enzymes but some drugs are metabolised by specific enzymes, for example alcohol dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase. Products of phase I reactions are typically more active and potentially toxic
  • phase II reactions: conjugation. Products are typically inactive and excreted in urine or bile. Glucuronyl, acetyl, methyl, sulphate and other groups are typically involved

Drug metabolism in patients with advanced liver disease

  • Drug processing via mixed function oxidases is affected early in liver disease
  • Conjugation reactions are affected to a lesser extent by advanced liver disease and only occur in very late stage disease
  • Plasma proteins fall in liver disease and may negatively affect drug distribution
  • Both intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis may affect the metabolism of drugs that are actively secreted into bile, eg ciprofloxacin

Effects of age on drug metabolism

  • For these reasons, ‘box-ticking’ healthy elderly studies are rarely able to detect problems associated with the use of new drugs in the elderly age group
  • Many problems associated with the use of new drugs in the elderly may only be discovered through adverse event reporting during the post-launch period

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Renal/Nephrology is the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease. Medicos Library has provided high standard Renal/Nephrology Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Renal blood flow (RBF)

  • Renal blood flow is 20-25% of cardiac output
  • The ‘Fick principle’ can be used to estimate RBF through clearance.
  • Sympathetic stimuli produce vasoconstriction and RBF should be increased in response to hypoxia.
  • Renal cortical blood flow > medullary blood flow (i.e. tubular cells more prone to ischaemia)

Renin

  • Released by JGA cells in kidney in response to ↓ renal perfusion, low sodium
  • Hydrolyses angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I

Factors stimulating renin secretion

  • ↓ BP → ↓ renal prefusion
  • Hyponatremia
  • Sympathetic nerve stimulation
  • Catecholamines
  • Erect posture

Factors reducing renin secretion

  • β-blockers
  • NSAIDS

Angiotensin

  • ACE in lung converts angiotensin I → angiotensin II
  • Vasoconstriction leads to raised BP
  • Stimulates thirst
  • Stimulates aldosterone and ADH release

Aldosterone

  • Released by the zona glomerulosa in response to raised angiotensin II, potassium, and ACTH levels
  • Causes retention of Na+ in exchange for K+/H+ in distal tubule

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Feb 252019
 

Respiratory Medicine is the study of that deals with the causes, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases affecting the lungs. Medicos Library has provided high standard Respiratory Medicine Notes by Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad.

Summary of Notes:

Lung development

  • Complete development of the alveoli and the pores of Kohn only occurs around the age of 7 years.
  • Distension in the fluid-filled lungs, tonic negative pressure of diaphragmatic tone and fetal breathing all cause lung growth.
  • Absence of liquor, which is produced by the fetal kidneys, causes poor lung growth and a low phospholipid content. Renal agenesis is therefore a cause of hypoplastic lungs.
  • Lamellar bodies in type II pneumocytes that produce surfactant are seen by 22 weeks’ gestation.

Phrenic nerve

  • The diaphragm is innervated by the phrenic nerve (C3,4,5).
  • Diagnosis is suspected when on the chest radiograph the diaphragmatic leaflet is elevated and is confirmed fluoroscopically by observing paradoxical diaphragmatic motion on sniff and cough.
  • In patients with normal lungs unilateral paralysis is usually asymptomatic and rarely requires treatment.
  • The diagnosis of unilateral paralysis, suggested by asymmetric elevation of the affected hemidiaphragm on X-ray, can be confirmed by fluoroscopy.
  • During a forced inspiratory manoeuvre (the ‘sniff test), the unaffected hemidiaphragm descends forcefully, increasing intra-abdominal pressure and pushing the paralysed hemidiaphragm cephalad (paradoxical motion).
  • Fluoroscopy is inaccurate for the diagnosis of bilateral paralysis.
  • While MRI may demonstrate a structural defect, it isn’t a dynamic investigation.

Advice form Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

How to use the notes to study for MRCP:

  • Initially, you need to skim through the notes at least twice to build up an idea about the syllabus of MRCP. Highlight any portion that is difficult so that you can concentrate on that during your revision.
  • Next proceed to the question banks. You can choose to do Passmedicine, onexamination or Pastest. I usually recommend students to do Passmedicine and the Pastest.
  • As you go through the questions make a super-revised notes of your own. Write down in one sentence what you learned from the question you just attempted.
  • If you get any question wrong or you get confused then return to the notes and re-read one more time before attempting the question again. And write down the point in red in you revision notes so that you can skim through it easily during your revision.
  • I have highlighted some points in yellow and green to help you concentrate on those points. As you go through passmedicine and pastest, you can highlight the points further to help in your revision.
  • During your revision before the main exam, only read the highlighted portions including those that you highlighted when practicing the question bank. And also read your super-revised notes that you made from the question banks.

I believe these method has worked for many students and will help you in your journey to be successful in MRCP part 1 and as well as build your basics for Part 2.


Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File


Find more Notes By Dr. Yousif Abdallah Hamad

Notes Basic Science Biostatistics Notes Basic Science Immunology
Notes Basic Scienses Biochemistry Metabolism Notes Cardiology
Notes Dermatology Notes Endocrinology
Notes Gastroenterology Notes Haematology
Notes Infectious Diseases Notes Neurology
Notes Ophthalmology Notes Pharmacology
Notes Renal System Notes Respiratory Medicine

 

Jan 282019
 

Toxicology and Drugs is a essential part of MRCP exam carrying 16 marks in the exam. Most student usual attain low marks in this section. Toxicology and Drugs is the study of  the nature, effects, and detection of poisons. Medicos Library has provided high standard Toxicology and Drugs on examination revision materials for medical exams.

Clinical pharmacology, therapeutics and clinical toxicology

  • Pharmacology
    - Mechanisms by which drugs produce their pharmacological effects
    - Basic principles of agonism and antagonism
    - Clinical implication of drugs that act at different receptor sites
    - Links between the pharmacological effects of drugs at the molecular level, the cellular level, and the tissue / organ level, and how these are affected by disease processes and other drugs
    - Principles by which both therapeutic and adverse effects occur
  • Clinical pharmacokinetics
    - Processes of drug absorption and distribution
    - Bio-transformation and excretion
    - Concepts of drug half-life and clearance
    - First order and zero order kinetics
  • Monitoring drug therapy
    - Direct measurement of therapeutic response
    - Measurement of plasma drug concentrations
    - Scientific basis for the measurement of drug concentration and its link to the principles of pharmacokinetics
  • Adverse drug reactions
    - Epidemiology of adverse drug reactions: recognition and avoidance
    - Important adverse effects of commonly used drugs
    - Importance of adverse drug reaction reporting schemes
  • Drug interactions
    - Adverse drug interactions and mechanisms by which interaction may occur
    - Common drug interactions and their clinical consequences
  • Pharmacogenetics
    - Principles of pharmacogenetics and its importance in determining variations in response to drugs in man, both in term of efficacy and toxicity
    - Clinical consequences of the common pharmacogenetic variations relevant to clinical practice
  • Therapeutics for specific patient groups
    - Principles of therapeutics as they apply in the following circumstances:
    The elderly
     Pregnancy and breast feeding
    — Patients with renal disease
     Patients with hepatic disease
    —– Effects of these altered physiology on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs
    —–
     Principle underlying drug choice, in pregnancy and breast feeding
    —–
     Teratogenic effects of drugs that may be used in pregnancy – Drugs that may produce toxicity in the case of renal and hepatic disease
  • Clinical toxicology
    - Principle of management of patients poisoned by drugs or other toxic substances
    - Assessment, recognition of common symptom patterns
    - Principles of removal of toxic substances
    - Antidotes where these approaches may be appropriate
  • Criteria for selecting drugs in a therapeutic class
    - Criteria used to select a drug from among drugs in a popular therapeutic class including:
    Differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
     The approved indications of the drug 
     Possible adverse effects or drug inteactions 
     Cost effectiveness 
    —–
     Nomenclature
    —– Used to describing studies that may be used to underpin drug selection
  • Drug formulations and routes of administration
    - Various formulations of medicines available
    - Routes by which medicines may be administered
    - Advantages and disadvantages of various routes and preparation
    - Most appropriate formulation selection and drug administration in common clinical scenarios

MRCP(UK) develops and delivers postgraduate medical examinations around the world on behalf of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK.

Part 1 at a glance

  • one-day examination
  • two three-hour papers
  • 200 mutiple-choice (best of five) questions
  • no images
  • sat in an examination hall.

Exam pass marks

MRCP(UK) examinations

Examination Pass mark
Part 1 540
Part 2 Written 454
PACES 130 (see individual skills breakdown below)

The composition of the papers is as follows:

Specialty Number of questions*
Cardiology 15
Clinical haematology and oncology 15
Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology 16
Emergency and Critical care
Clinical sciences** 25
Dermatology 8
Endocrinology 15
Geriatric medicine 4
Gastroenterology 15
Infectious diseases and GUM 15
Neurology 15
Nephrology 15
Ophthalmology 4
Psychiatry 8
Respiratory medicine 15
Rheumatology 15
200

* This should be taken as an indication of the likely number of questions – the actual number may vary slightly.

** Clinical sciences comprise:

Cell, molecular and membrane biology 2
Clinical anatomy 3
Clinical biochemistry and metabolism 4
Clinical physiology 4
Genetics 3
Immunology 4
Statistics, epidemiology and evidence-based medicine 5

Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File

Jan 282019
 

Rheumatology is a essential part of MRCP exam carrying 15 marks in the exam. Most student usual attain low marks in this section. Rheumatology is the study of rheumatism, arthritis, and other disorders of the joints, muscles, and ligaments. Medicos Library has provided high standard Rheumatology on examination revision materials for medical exams.

  • Basic principles of the common musculoskeletal conditions
  • Clinical science
    - Basic physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and pathology relating to musculoskeletal diseases
    - Pathology of the common rheumatic conditions
  • Clinical conditions
    - Relative prevalence and major associations of the common rheumatological conditions
    - Symptoms and signs of the rheumatic diseases
    - Arthritis associated with other medical conditions
  • Investigations
    - Investigations relevant to the diagnosis and assessment of rheumatic diseases including
    - Acute phase proteins
    - Immunological tests relating to the connective tissue diseases
    - Contemporary imaging techniques
  • Management
    - Management of acute rheumatological emergencies including Septic arthritis, Osteomyelitis, temporal arteritis and acute spinal cord compression
    - Management of rheumatic diseases

MRCP(UK) develops and delivers postgraduate medical examinations around the world on behalf of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK.

Part 1 at a glance

  • one-day examination
  • two three-hour papers
  • 200 mutiple-choice (best of five) questions
  • no images
  • sat in an examination hall.

Exam pass marks

MRCP(UK) examinations

Examination Pass mark
Part 1 540
Part 2 Written 454
PACES 130 (see individual skills breakdown below)

The composition of the papers is as follows:

Specialty Number of questions*
Cardiology 15
Clinical haematology and oncology 15
Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology 16
Emergency and Critical care
Clinical sciences** 25
Dermatology 8
Endocrinology 15
Geriatric medicine 4
Gastroenterology 15
Infectious diseases and GUM 15
Neurology 15
Nephrology 15
Ophthalmology 4
Psychiatry 8
Respiratory medicine 15
Rheumatology 15
200

* This should be taken as an indication of the likely number of questions – the actual number may vary slightly.

** Clinical sciences comprise:

Cell, molecular and membrane biology 2
Clinical anatomy 3
Clinical biochemistry and metabolism 4
Clinical physiology 4
Genetics 3
Immunology 4
Statistics, epidemiology and evidence-based medicine 5

Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File

Jan 282019
 

Respiratory is a essential part of MRCP exam carrying 15 marks in the exam. Most student usual attain low marks in this section. Respiratory is the study of that deals with the causes, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases affecting the lungs. Medicos Library has provided high standard Respiratory on examination revision materials for medical exams.

  • Anatomy and physiology
    - Clinical relevant anatomy of the upper and lower respiratory tract and thorax including radiological anatomy
    - Principles of respiratory physiology including: How respiration is controlled 
    Principles of gas exchange and oxygen transport
     Ventilation-perfusion relationships
     Lung volumes and transfer factor
    Respiratory aspects of sleep and exercise physiology
    - Physical, humoral and cellular aspects of respiratory defence mechanisms
    - Physiology of the proteinase inhibitors and pulmonary surfactant
  • Pathophysiology and pathology
    - Effects of disease on pulmonary physiology and anatomy including:
    The pulmonary and bronchial circulations as gas exchange
     Adaptations to chronic hypoxaemia
     Pleural fluid production and reabsorption
    - Application of the basic immunological processes to pulmonary pathology including:
     Asthma
    Alveolitis
     Tuberculosis
    - Humoral and cellular immunodeficiency states and sequelae
    - Microbiology of acute and chronic respiratory infections
  • Cell biology and genetics
    - Lung inflammation and repair
    - Vasculitis
    - Cystic fibrosis
    - Anti-protease deficiency
  • Clinical pharmacology
    - Indications for, and mechanisms of action of, drugs used in respiratory disease together with their interactions and side effects.
    - Important respiratory complications of other drugs (NSAIDs and beta blockers)

Clinical conditions
- Clinical features, investigation and management of respiratory disease likely to be encountered by a general physician
Ex:
 Pleural effusion
 Chest pain
Haemoptysis
 Breathlessness
- Impact of systemic disease on the respiratory system
Ex:
 Vasculitis
 Neuromuscular disease
HIV infection
- Occupational lung disease, particularly asthma, pneumoconiosis and asbestos related disease
- Assessment of respiratory malignant condition
- General principles of oncological management including indication of surgery Indications for specialised investigations including bronchoscopy, CT scanning, lung biopsy, lung volumes and exercise testing
- Investigation of sleep related disorders and of the radiological aspects of respiratory diseases
- Indications for, and problems of, lung transplantation
- Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection·
Exclusion
- Knowledge of detailed pulmonary mechanics, oncology drug regimens, drug therapy of environmental mycobacterial infection, inhalation drug kinetics, and detailed histological descriptions is not required.

MRCP(UK) develops and delivers postgraduate medical examinations around the world on behalf of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK.

Part 1 at a glance

  • one-day examination
  • two three-hour papers
  • 200 mutiple-choice (best of five) questions
  • no images
  • sat in an examination hall.

Exam pass marks

MRCP(UK) examinations

Examination Pass mark
Part 1 540
Part 2 Written 454
PACES 130 (see individual skills breakdown below)

The composition of the papers is as follows:

Specialty Number of questions*
Cardiology 15
Clinical haematology and oncology 15
Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology 16
Emergency and Critical care
Clinical sciences** 25
Dermatology 8
Endocrinology 15
Geriatric medicine 4
Gastroenterology 15
Infectious diseases and GUM 15
Neurology 15
Nephrology 15
Ophthalmology 4
Psychiatry 8
Respiratory medicine 15
Rheumatology 15
200

* This should be taken as an indication of the likely number of questions – the actual number may vary slightly.

** Clinical sciences comprise:

Cell, molecular and membrane biology 2
Clinical anatomy 3
Clinical biochemistry and metabolism 4
Clinical physiology 4
Genetics 3
Immunology 4
Statistics, epidemiology and evidence-based medicine 5

Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File

Jan 282019
 

Renal/Nephrology is a essential part of MRCP exam carrying 15 marks in the exam. Most student usual attain low marks in this section. Renal/Nephrology is the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease. Medicos Library has provided high standard Renal/Nephrology on examination revision materials for medical exams.

  • Physiology
    - Discrete functions of Glomerular ultrafiltration and tubular function
    - Proximal and distal parts of the nephron, with particular reference to control of water and electrolyte balance
    - Renal tubular acidosis
    - Cystinuria
    - Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-balance disturbances
  • Molecular biology and genetics
    - Genetic defects of common disorders including:
    Polycystic kidney 
    Alport’s syndrome
    Hypophosphataemic rickets
    - Inflammatory injury of the kidney mediated by various cytokines factors
  • Glomerular and tubular disorders
    - Glomerular ultra structure based upon techniques of light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence as applied to renal biopsy
    - Primary Glomerular disorders as in idiopathic glomerulonephritis, and nephropathies of systemic diseases
    Ex:
    Diabetes mellitus
    SLE
    Hypertensive nephrosclerosis
    Vasculitis
    Amyloidosis
    - Interstitial nephritis, in particular vase s with reversible aetiology such as drug, heavy metals and analgesics
    - Metabolic sequelae of acute nephrotic and nephritic syndromes
    - Investigation and assessment of Glomerular and tubular disorders, including ultrasonic studies and nuclear medicine
    - Disturbed renal and metabolic functions in nephritic syndrome from a variety of causes
  • Infections of the kidney
    - Management of urinary tract infections including their detention, predisposing factors, prevention, and treatment
    - Anatomical abnormalities leading to repeated urinary tract infection 
    Ex:
    Reflux nephropathy 
    Prostatic hypertrophy
    - Other infections that might affect the kidney by direct invasion or by immune-complex deposition
  • Calculus formation within the urinary tract
    - Metabolic disorders predisposing to stone formation, their investigation, prevention and treatment
    Ex:
    Idiopathic hypercalciuria
    Primary Hyperparathyroidism
    Cystinuria 
    Hyperoxaluria · Acute and chronic renal failure
    - Management of acute and chronic renal failure and of disturbed physiology involved
    - Pathophysiological changes and non-dialytic treatment in different stages of progressive renal failure
    - Principle of nutritional requirements and diatery intervention for patients with chronic renal failure
    - Other therapeutic means to slow down the progression of renal failure
  • Hypertension and renal problems in pregnancy
    - Renal adaptation to pregnancy
    - Management and profylaxis of renal disease and hypertension in pregnancy
  • Drug and the kidney
    - Role of the kidney in the normal elimination of drugs 
    - Mechanisms by which drugs cause nephrotoxic damage
    - Principle of dose adjustment according to residual renal function

Renal replacement therapy
- Different dialysis modalities and their complications
- Complications related to immunosuppressive therapy following renal transplantation

MRCP(UK) develops and delivers postgraduate medical examinations around the world on behalf of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK.

Part 1 at a glance

  • one-day examination
  • two three-hour papers
  • 200 mutiple-choice (best of five) questions
  • no images
  • sat in an examination hall.

Exam pass marks

MRCP(UK) examinations

Examination Pass mark
Part 1 540
Part 2 Written 454
PACES 130 (see individual skills breakdown below)

The composition of the papers is as follows:

Specialty Number of questions*
Cardiology 15
Clinical haematology and oncology 15
Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology 16
Emergency and Critical care
Clinical sciences** 25
Dermatology 8
Endocrinology 15
Geriatric medicine 4
Gastroenterology 15
Infectious diseases and GUM 15
Neurology 15
Nephrology 15
Ophthalmology 4
Psychiatry 8
Respiratory medicine 15
Rheumatology 15
200

* This should be taken as an indication of the likely number of questions – the actual number may vary slightly.

** Clinical sciences comprise:

Cell, molecular and membrane biology 2
Clinical anatomy 3
Clinical biochemistry and metabolism 4
Clinical physiology 4
Genetics 3
Immunology 4
Statistics, epidemiology and evidence-based medicine 5

Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File

Jan 282019
 

Infectious disease is a essential part of MRCP exam carrying 15 marks in the exam. Most student usual attain low marks in this section. Infectious disease is the study of a disease or disease-causing organism liable to be transmitted to people, organisms, etc. through the environment. Medicos Library has provided high standard Infectious disease on examination revision materials for medical exams.

  • Microbiology
    - Taxonomy of bacteria in terms of Gram-straining and aerobic /anaerobic metabolism
    - Virus classification for members of the herpes group
    - Virus replication with reference to the retroviruses
    - Major pathogenic protozoa and helminths
    Ex:
    -Aerobic or anaerobic bacteria
    -Gram-staining characteristics of bacteria
  • Immunology of infectious diseases
    - Immune deficiency states linked with types of opportunistic infections
    - Principle of immunisation and vaccines currently used
    Ex:
    - Opportunistic infections
    - Immunisation policy
  • Pathophysiology
    - Septic shock
    - ARDS
    - Role of cytokines in infection
  • Epidemiology
    -
    Principles relevant to infectious diseases
    Ex:
    - Mechanisms of transmission of pathogens
    - How epidemics happen
    - Knowledge of carrier states, reservoirs, vectors and zoonoses
    - Elementary concepts of the control of communicable diseases (including immunisation, isolation, contact tracing, chemoprophylaxis of close contacts)
    - Geographical variation in diseases including TB, HIV, Hepatitis B, malaria
  • Treatment
    - Broad indications for commonly employed antimicrobial agents
    - Major adverse effects for commonly employed antimicrobial agents
    Ex:
    - B-lactams
    - Tetracyclines
    - Macrolides
    - Aminoglycosides
    - Quinolines
    - Trimethoprim
    - Metronidazole
    - Antituberculous drugs
    - Antimalarial drugs
    - Antiviral agents

Specific infections
- Characteristics, recognition, prevention, eradication, and pathological effects of all commonly encountered bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, fungi, protozoa, parasites and toxins.
- Principle of infection control
- Differential diagnostic and appropriate investigations
- Presumptive therapies indications
Ex:
- Septicaemia
- Meningitis and encephalitis
- Endocarditis
- Pneumonia (community-acquired, hospital-acquired, lung abscess, empyema)
- Tuberculosis
- PUO (appropriate investigations, when empirical therapy might be indicated)
- Soft-tissue infection and Osteomyelitis
- Streptococcal infection, rheumatic fever, nephritis
- Intra-abdominal sepsis
- Food-poisoning
- Tropical Infections (especially malaria, bilharzias, amoebiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, hookworm and viral haemorrhagic fevers)
- Viral hepatitis
- HIV/AIDS (course of typical infection, CD4 count and HIV viral load as markers of progression; main opportunistic infections including Pneumocytis pneumonia, CNS toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculosis)
- Glandular fever syndrome and its differentiation from HIV seroconversion illness
- Spirochaetosis – syphilis, leptospirosis, borrelia
- Toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal infections

MRCP(UK) develops and delivers postgraduate medical examinations around the world on behalf of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK.

Part 1 at a glance

  • one-day examination
  • two three-hour papers
  • 200 mutiple-choice (best of five) questions
  • no images
  • sat in an examination hall.

Exam pass marks

MRCP(UK) examinations

Examination Pass mark
Part 1 540
Part 2 Written 454
PACES 130 (see individual skills breakdown below)

The composition of the papers is as follows:

Specialty Number of questions*
Cardiology 15
Clinical haematology and oncology 15
Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology 16
Emergency and Critical care
Clinical sciences** 25
Dermatology 8
Endocrinology 15
Geriatric medicine 4
Gastroenterology 15
Infectious diseases and GUM 15
Neurology 15
Nephrology 15
Ophthalmology 4
Psychiatry 8
Respiratory medicine 15
Rheumatology 15
200

* This should be taken as an indication of the likely number of questions – the actual number may vary slightly.

** Clinical sciences comprise:

Cell, molecular and membrane biology 2
Clinical anatomy 3
Clinical biochemistry and metabolism 4
Clinical physiology 4
Genetics 3
Immunology 4
Statistics, epidemiology and evidence-based medicine 5

Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File

Jan 282019
 

Gastroenterology is a essential part of MRCP exam carrying 15 marks in the exam. Most student usual attain low marks in this section. Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. Medicos Library has provided high standard Gastroenterology on examination revision materials for medical exams.

  • Clinical science
    - Structure and function of the gastrointestinal and hepatobilary tract
    - Neurohormonal control of gut motility
    - Secretory and absorptive functions of the gastro-intestinal tract and liver
    - Symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases
    - Genetics of the more common gastrointestinal and liver disorders
    - Clinical pharmacology of drugs used in gastrointestinal disorders including their actions, interactions and adverse effects
  • Clinical nutrition
    - Nutritional requirements in health
    - Assessment of nutritional status
    - Nutritional deficiency states
    - Primary nutritional disorders
  • Disorders of the mouth, tongue and salivary glands
    - Mouth ulcers, periodontal and salivary disorders
    - Oral manifestations of systemic and dermatological disorders
  • Disorders of the oesophagus and stomach
    - Alchalasia
    - Carcinomas
    - Peptic ulceration
    - Gastritis
    - Gastrointestinal haemorrhage
  • Functional disorders
    - Functional chest pain and functional dyspepsia
    - Irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain
    - Functional constipation and diarrhoea
  • Disorders of the small intestine
    - Malabsoption syndromes and gluten enteropathy
    - Hormone-secreting tumours of the gut
  • Disorders of the liver, biliary tree and pancreas
    - Bilirubin metabolism and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids
    - Causes of jaundice and cholestasis
    - Common pancreatic disorders including carcinoma
    - Fulminant liver failure
    - Acute and chronic hepatitis
    - Drugs, toxins, alcohol and the liver
  • The acute abdomen
    - Perforated viscus and peritonitis
    - Intestinal obstruction
    - Ischaemic disease of the small and large bowel
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
    - Crohn’s disease
    - Ulcerative colitis
    - Infective gastroenteritis
    - Parasitic and protozoal gut infections

Colorectal disorders
- Polyps
- Carcinomas
- Diverticular disease
- Anorectal disorders

MRCP(UK) develops and delivers postgraduate medical examinations around the world on behalf of the three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK.

Part 1 at a glance

  • one-day examination
  • two three-hour papers
  • 200 mutiple-choice (best of five) questions
  • no images
  • sat in an examination hall.

Exam pass marks

MRCP(UK) examinations

Examination Pass mark
Part 1 540
Part 2 Written 454
PACES 130 (see individual skills breakdown below)

The composition of the papers is as follows:

Specialty Number of questions*
Cardiology 15
Clinical haematology and oncology 15
Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology 16
Emergency and Critical care
Clinical sciences** 25
Dermatology 8
Endocrinology 15
Geriatric medicine 4
Gastroenterology 15
Infectious diseases and GUM 15
Neurology 15
Nephrology 15
Ophthalmology 4
Psychiatry 8
Respiratory medicine 15
Rheumatology 15
200

* This should be taken as an indication of the likely number of questions – the actual number may vary slightly.

** Clinical sciences comprise:

Cell, molecular and membrane biology 2
Clinical anatomy 3
Clinical biochemistry and metabolism 4
Clinical physiology 4
Genetics 3
Immunology 4
Statistics, epidemiology and evidence-based medicine 5

Click Here to Direct Download   or   Click Here To See The File